What Is Periodontal Disease? Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

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What Is Periodontal Disease? Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

We pay special attention to the other aspects of our body and maintain our oral health. At this time, oral problems such as gingivitis and periodontitis occur. Periodontitis affects about 30-50% of the world population.

Do your teeth appear longer than usual? Shake it lightly with your fingers. Do you feel like they fall down at any moment? You may be suffering from periodontitis and need to see a dentist immediately! To learn more about this oral problem and its treatment, read on.

What is periodontal disease?

Periodontitis (or gum disease) is a severe infection of the gums that can damage the soft tissue and bone supporting your teeth. Failure to treat this condition can completely worsen the alveolar bone around the teeth. This can cause your teeth to loosen and some of them can even fall off.

Although periodontal disease is quite common, it is largely preventable.

Periodontal disease is usually the second stage of gum disease. Periodontal or gum disease is usually divided into three stages.

What are the stages of periodontal disease?

The three main stages of periodontitis are:

Stage 1 - Gingivitis

This is the most common stage of the disease. It forms plaque around your gums and in some cases can cause inflammation, swelling and even bleeding.

Stage 2 - Periodontitis

If the gingivitis is not treated, it can become heavy and cause periodontal disease. This infection threatens the gum, jawbone and surrounding bone.

Stage 3 - Advanced Periodontitis Or Periodontitis

If periodontitis progresses to this stage, there is a high risk that you will lose some of your teeth as well as the bones and fibers that they carry. This is the most severe stage that can lead to persistent bad breath, toothache, tooth loss, bone loss, and so on.

In this article we are dealing with the second stage of gum disease - periodontitis. Now let's take a look at the signs and symptoms.

Signs and symptoms

The most common symptoms of periodontal disease are:

  • Inflamed, swollen or swollen gums
  • Gums can be light red or purple
  • Tender gums that can bleed easily
  • Gum residues that make your teeth look longer
  • More space between the developing teeth
  • Pus between the teeth and the gums
  • Relaxation of the teeth
  • Bad breath
  • Toothache, especially when eating

What factors trigger periodontitis? Let us find out.

What causes periodontal disease?

Most cases of periodontitis begin with the formation of plaques on the teeth and gums. Plaque formation can further contribute to the development of periodontitis in the following phases:

  • The starches and sugars in the food you eat interact with the naturally occurring bacteria in your mouth. This leads to the formation of dental plaque.
  • If plaque is left unattended, your gum line may harden to tartar. Tartar is harder to remove and you can not just remove it by brushing or flossing. You need to see a dentist to get rid of it.
  • Untreated plaques and tartar lead to gingivitis. This is the beginning of periodontitis, which can cause irritation and inflammation in a part of your gum that surrounds the base of the tooth.
  • If gingivitis is not monitored, it leads to periodontitis, which causes pockets to form between the teeth and the gums. These bags are often filled with plaque, tartar and bacteria.

Risk Factors

The most common risk factors for periodontitis include:

  • Bad oral hygiene
  • Gingivitis
  • Chewing or smoking tobacco
  • Hormonal changes or imbalances caused by pregnancy or menopause
  • Substance abuse
  • Be obese
  • Genetics - A family history of the condition
  • Malnutrition - as with vitamin C.
  • Certain medications that alter the gums or make your mouth increasingly dry
  • Illnesses like leukemia and HIV / AIDS, which cause your immunity to wane
  • Other diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease
  • Cancer treatments such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy

Many people mistake periodontitis for gingivitis because of the similarities in their symptoms. However, you must be aware that periodontal disease is an advanced stage of gingivitis. Below are some of the main differences between the two.

Gingivitis Vs. Periodontitis

Some of the main differences between gingivitis and periodontitis are:


  • Gingivitis is preceded by periodontitis.
  • Not all cases of gingivitis develop into periodontitis.
  • It is a result of plaque.
  • The gums are inflamed and can even bleed when gum infections.
  • In gingivitis, the teeth remain firmly implanted in the gum.


  • Some cases of untreated gingivitis develop into periodontal disease.
  • Periodontitis usually follows gingivitis.
  • The inner layer of gum and bone pulls away from the teeth and forms pockets between the teeth and the gums.
  • Your teeth can relax.
  • Some of your teeth may fall off too.

When it comes to your oral health, you should immediately initiate a medical procedure to prevent the progression of periodontal disease.

When To See A Dentist

It is best to see a dentist immediately if you find that your case is causing gingivitis. Have your teeth checked regularly or as recommended by your dentist. The sooner you start treatment, the better the chances of reversing the damage before it becomes permanent.

If you visit a dentist, you may be able to do the following tests to determine if you have periodontitis or not.

How To Diagnose Periodontitis

Your dentist can first review your medical history and lifestyle to identify any factors that may contribute to the development of periodontitis.

Your dentist can:

  • Examine your mouth to look for symptoms of the condition.
  • Measure the depth of the pockets or holes that have formed due to the condition. The pockets of a healthy mouth are usually 1-3 mm deep. Pockets deeper than 4 mm indicate periodontitis.
  • Do dental x-rays to search for bone loss in areas with deep pockets.

Once your dentist has confirmed periodontal disease, you may be prescribed some treatments and asked to make lifestyle changes.

How to treat periodontal disease

Treatments are usually performed by a dentist, a periodontist or a dental hygienist. The main goal of the treatment is usually to thoroughly clean the pockets around the teeth and to prevent damage to the surrounding bones and tissues.

You must follow good oral care and stop smoking to get the best results from the treatment.

Non-advanced periodontitis may only require less invasive or non-surgical procedures such as:

  • Scaling to remove tartar and bacteria from the surface of your teeth as well as under your gums. This often happens with a laser, an ultrasound device or instruments.
  • Root planing to smooth the root surfaces to prevent bacteria and tartar from forming.
  • Antibiotics - Both topical and oral antibiotics can control bacterial infections.

Advanced cases of periodontitis may require surgery, such as:

  • Flap or Pocket Reduction Surgery - Tiny incisions are made in your gums so that part of your gums can be lifted slightly for more effective scaling and root planing.
  • Soft tissue grafts - These help to strengthen damaged soft tissue. This procedure is often performed by taking a small amount of tissue from your palate. This graft can also be taken from another donor source.
  • Bone Build - This is done to strengthen the broken bones around the tooth root. The graft may consist of fragments of your own bone or a donor. These grafts can also be synthetic.
  • Guided tissue regeneration - A biocompatible tissue is placed between an existing bone and your tooth so that the bones destroyed by bacteria can regrow. This procedure prevents unwanted tissue from entering the healing area.
  • Tissue Stimulating Proteins - A special gel is applied to the diseased tooth root to stimulate the growth of healthy bones and tissues.

Depending on the severity of your teeth damage, your doctor may prescribe any of the above treatments to speed up your healing.

It is also recommended that you follow these tips to make your ongoing medical treatments work better.

How to prevent periodontitis

  • Brush your teeth at least twice a day.
  • Daily flossing.
  • Use a soft toothbrush to brush your teeth and replace it every 3-4 months.
  • If possible, use an electric toothbrush as it can better remove plaque and tartar.
  • Use a mouthwash to reduce plaque between teeth and gums.
  • Stop smoking or chew tobacco.
  • Have your teeth checked regularly by a dentist.

It is best to conduct regular dental examinations to detect periodontal disease early so that damage to the teeth and gums can be easily corrected. Without treatment, periodontal disease can lead to complications.


The complications of periodontal disease are the following:

  • tooth loss
  • Recurrent gum abscesses
  • Increase the damage to the periodontal ligament that connects the tooth to the pan
  • Damage to the alveolar or jawbone
  • tooth loss
  • Returning gums
  • Relaxation of the teeth

Do not take your oral health for granted. After a good oral hygiene and regular dental examinations, the periodontitis can be successfully combated and prevented.

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